The Ghost galaxy: Evidence for cosmic dust as the source of dark matter

The absence of dark matter in the transparent DF2 galaxy supports the theory that dark matter only exists because galaxy velocities inferred from redshift measurements are overestimated by cosmic dust
 
 
Effect of cosmic dust in redshift measurements of galaxy velocities
Effect of cosmic dust in redshift measurements of galaxy velocities
 
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PITTSBURGH - April 4, 2018 - PRLog -- .
Introduction

Discovered several years ago, the transparent DF2 galaxy containing globular galaxy clusters was recently reviewed [1] for the presence of dark matter. DF2 stands for NGC 1052-DF2. Dark matter was inferred from the velocity V of the clusters, i.e., fast moving clusters suggesting dark matter is present in holding the clusters together, but if slow moving, dark matter need not exist. Cluster velocities were inferred from the Doppler effect using redshift Z from absorption lines of the calcium triplet state.  For Z <<1, the galaxy velocity V ≈ Z*c, where c is the velocity of light. On this basis, dark matter in DF2 was not found because high cluster velocities V common to galaxies thought to have dark matter were not measured.

Missing dark matter in the DF2 galaxy poses a conceptual dilemma to modern cosmology that claims dark matter permeates the Universe. Although other explanations are possible, some astronomers argue DF2 rules out MOND as an alternative explanation for dark matter. MOND standing for modified Newtonian dynamics claims dark matter is not real but an illusion, caused by our lack of knowledge of gravity on large scales. However, dark matter should always be detected independent of galaxy transparency, as it is a consequence of ordinary matter, and therefore DF2 does refute MOND as an alternative theory to dark matter. See https://www.space.com/40119-ghostly-galaxy-almost-no-dark-matter.html

Problem
The DF2 galaxy not only marks the demise of dark matter in cosmology, but also the alternative explanation of dark matter by MOND. An alternative dark matter theory to MOND is suggested based on the transparency of a galaxy cluster that distinguishes DF2 from other galaxies.

Proposal
Dark matter is not real, but rather an overstatement of measured velocities of galaxy clusters that includes redshift by cosmic dust giving the impression dark matter mass must be present to hold the cluster together. If the Universe were in fact transparent like DF2, the velocity of a galaxy inferred from the redshift of light by the Doppler effect shift would be correct. But cosmic dust permeates the Universe, and therefore valid galaxy velocities require correction for redshift in dust.

Theory
Redshift of galaxy light in cosmic dust is a consequence of light-matter interaction of a single galaxy photon with a nanoscopic dust particle, as multiple interaction of galaxy photons with the same dust particle are unlikely. The interaction of the galaxy photon as a real photon is described by simple QED unrelated to the complex theory of virtual photons proposed by Feynman. Simple QED is a consequence of QM that by the Planck law requires the heat capacity of dust to vanish under high EM confinement induced by high S/V ratios that requires heat to be deposited almost entirely in the dust surface. QM stands for quantum mechanics, EM for electromagnetic, and S/V stands for surface-to-volume. Since QM denies dust atoms heat capacity, the heat of the galaxy photon absorbed in cosmic dust does not increase temperature. Precluded from thermal expansion, the surface heat places internal dust atoms under the high EM confinement necessary for heat capacity to vanish.

Absent conservation of the galaxy photon by temperature, simple QED converts the heat in the dust surface to non-thermal energy of a real photon defined by the dimensions of EM confinement between opposing dust surfaces. For a spherical dust particle, the simple QED photon standing inside the dust has half-wavelength λ/2 = d, where d is the dust diameter. The Planck energy E of the simple QED photon is, E = hν = h(c/n)/λ = hc/2nd, where c is the speed of light with the refractive index n correcting for the lower light speed in the dust. Upon the galaxy photon adjusting to the EM confinement of the dust particle, the simple QED photon may be red or blue shifted depending on the dust size. However, the absorption of a single galaxy photon only allows redshift as blue shift is precluded by energy conservation. Once the surface heat is expended in forming the simple QED photon, the EM confinement vanishes and the simple QED photon is free to travel to the Earth as a redshifted galaxy photon. For diverse applications of simple QED see: http://www.nanoqed.org/, 2010 – 2018.

Discussion
Applying simple QED to the redshift in cosmic dust is illustrated in the thumbnail. The dust redshift Z is given by Z = (λo - λ)/λ , where λo = 2nd is the wavelength of the galaxy photon observed on Earth. The redshift Z is computed for the Lyman-alpha (Lyα) and Hydrogen-alpha (Hα) lines in relation to the radius r of cosmic dust, r = d/2. The error in velocity V caused by cosmic dust is observed to approach the speed of light c depending on dust size. Since the redshift of individual Lyα and Hα lines is required to be the same for all galaxy velocities, the corrected redshift Zc to the measured redshift Zm is,

Zc = Zm - ( Z Lyα – Z Hα )

If Z Lyα = Z Hα, then Zc = Zm and galaxy velocities V given by the Doppler effect are valid, but otherwise the velocities V are invalid by cosmic dust.

Conclusion
If the measured redshift is corrected for the redshift in cosmic dust, there is no need for dark matter to explain an expanding Universe or the rotation curves in spiral galaxies suggesting the Universe is dynamic, but otherwise static and infinite.

References
[1] P. van Dokkum, et al. "A galaxy lacking dark matter," Nature, 555, 629, 2018.
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