Simple QED: An alternative to Feynman's QED?

Mediation of light-matter interaction by virtual photons in Feynman's QED is superseded by simple QED defining the wave by real photons in dissipating the energy of the particle upon interaction with size dependent matter
Simple QED. Wave-particle duality
Simple QED. Wave-particle duality
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Simple QED
Wave-particle duality


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PITTSBURGH - March 29, 2018 - PRLog -- .

In QED, Feynman [1] proposed virtual protons produce real phenomena. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. Excitation shared between a large number of two-level atoms is thought to produce superradiant collimated emission accompanied by a shift of the emission frequency from the exchange of virtual photons. Similarly, the Purcell effect and Lamb shift as modifications of the transition frequency of an atom are based on the emission and absorption of virtual photons. Cooperative Lamb shift is considered a collective effect from a number of coherent virtual photons.

QED mediates light-matter interactions with virtual photons, but lacks experimental verification. Even Feynman's argument that light is made of virtual particles is conjecture as any theory of light-matter interaction can only be verified if based on real photons.

In wave-particle duality, a mechanism is not known for how the photon as a particle becomes a wave. Given the Universe is comprised of matter that exists in all sizes from planets to atoms, the hypothesis is made that the photon as a wave may only be revealed upon the interaction of a particle with size dependent matter.

Simple QED is the mechanism by which heat controls the interaction of a particle with matter. Differing from Feynman's QED, simple QED mediates the interaction with real photons. The heat content of matter is based on Planck's law of QM that defines the heat capacity of constituent atoms to depend on EM confinement. QM stands for quantum mechanics and EM for electromagnetic. Atoms in macroscopic matter absent EM confinement follow classical physics and conserve the heat of the particle by increasing the temperature of matter. But QM differs from classical physics in nanoscopic matter.

In matter at the nanoscale, say in a NS comprising a number of atoms, the heat capacity vanishes because the high surface-to-volume ratio requires the heat of the particle interaction to almost entirely be absorbed in the NS surface. NS stands for nanostructure. Absent heat capacity, the surface heat cannot increase NS temperature. Precluded from thermal expansion, the surface heat places NS atoms under the EM confinement required by the Planck law for the capacity to vanish. Conservation of surface heat therefore proceeds by simple QED creating non-thermal EM standing waves in the NS having half-wavelength λ/2 = d, where d is the minimum NS dimension. The Planck energy E of the standing waves is, E = hν = h(c/n)/λ = hc/2nd, where h is Planck's constant, c is the speed of light, and n the refractive index of the NS. Typically, a NS having dimensions d < 100 nm has simple QED frequencies ν in the EUV.

Simple QED is a new quantum state depending only on the size of the NS that defines the EM energy of the standing wave. Quantum levels of constituent NS atoms having UV-VIS-IR states including plasmon resonances are excited from the simple QED state by EUV fluorescence. Absent lower NS states, the simple QED photon is emitted at frequency ν to the surroundings. In astronomy, simple QED allows the particle emitted from a distant star with Planck energy E = hν* to be redshift upon interacting with a NS of cosmic dust to produce a lower emission frequency ν, i.e., ν < ν*. With X-rays > 1 keV, the NS is required to fragment to atomic dimensions with simple QED giving the Planck energy E = hc/4r, where r is the atomic radius. For diverse applications of simple QED, see:, 2010 – 2018.

Simple QED is applicable to a wide range of diverse phenomena shown in the thumbnail, a limited number of applications are presented as follows.

X-ray emission by ZPE The X-ray emission from 1-2 kV glow discharge with a Pd cathode thought caused by zero point energy or ZPE is superseded by superradiance from simple QED having energy levels depending only on the size of the atom. But X-ray transitions require heat Q* = E/τ to be deposited in τ < 150 fs. To emit X-rays at heat flow Q < Q*, a cooperative effect is required. Similar to the Dicke state, simple QED for a collection of atoms produces collimated superradiant emission in the direction of the heat flow Q from the cathode. See

Perseus 3.5 keV X-rays The mysterious 3.55 keV X-ray emission from the Perseus galaxy cluster not present in emission lines of atomic elements thought caused by dark matter is also superseded by simple QED . Applying simple QED to the 3.55 keV X-ray emission gives wavelength λ = 0.349 nm. The atom diameter d = λ/2n, but at X-ray frequencies, n = 1 and d = λ/2 = 174.5 pm with radius r = d/2 = 87.25 pm. Of the atomic elements, krypton and sulfur have radii = 88 pm. Krypton aside, simple QED emission is consistent with X-rays produced in laboratory charge-exchange experiments for bare sulfur atoms. See

Simple QED explains light-matter interaction by wave-particle duality with real photons. A wave only exists as the energy of the particle is conserved in the interaction with matter, the wave properties depending on the size of matter.  A photon having Planck energy E = hν* is emitted into the vacuum as a particle remains a particle until interacting with matter at which time becomes a wave.

[1] R. P. Feynman, et al., "The Feynman lectures on physics," Addison-Wesley, 1964.

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