Hurricane modification with EUV absorptive gases?

Oxygen removal from the air in the updraft of a hurricane is shown to counter the significant EUV enhancement of cloud condensation nuclei, but EUV absorbing gases that attach to water vapor may prove optimum
Significant extent of a Hurricane
Significant extent of a Hurricane
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Hurricane modification
UV enhanced CCN
Quantum Mechanics


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PITTSBURGH - Sept. 26, 2017 - PRLog -- .

Hurricanes Harvey and Irma caused major economic damage in the US. Recent research [1] suggests the source of the updraft in hurricanes is the CCN formed from biogenic particles in the atmosphere that enhance the evaporation of water and subsequent condensation into clouds and rain. CCN stands for cloud condensation nuclei.

Biogenic particles [1] do enhance the formation of CCN, but other factors also need to be considered. Clouds strongly influence the incoming solar UV radiation, and therefore UV was thought [2] to influence the formation of CCN. UV measurements with the sun positioned in front of and in the shadow of the cloud both showed a 3-fold enhancement of UV emission compared to the cloud-free background . What this suggests is the clouds are producing their own UV. If so,

How do clouds produce UV radiation?

Clouds are proposed to produce UV radiation by the simple QED conversion of the heat of condensation of water molecules. But simple QED differs from the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feynman and others. Specifically, CCN growth from <1 to 50 nm produces ionizing EM radiation from soft X-rays to the EUV that creates high dipole moments > 6 Debye by clustering charged water molecules. CCN growth is significant in the EUV as the high dipole moment attracts surrounding charged and neutral water molecules. Beyond 50 nm, CCN growth produces UV radiation , e.g., UVC at 254 nm is created at about 100 nm. Dipoles created in the EUV continue to cluster charged and uncharged water molecules as the CCN grow through the VIS and IR eventually reaching about 6 micron.

By classical physics, CCN should not grow as temperature increases during condensation are offset by equal temperature decreases in evaporation. QM by the Planck law differs. QM stands for quantum mechanics. The Planck law precludes CCN < 100 nm from having the heat capacity to conserve the heat of condensation by an increase in temperature. Instead, simple QED conserves the heat of condensation by the emission of EM radiation without a temperature increase thereby allowing the CCN to grow by negating the need for subsequent evaporation. By the Planck law, the CCN heat capacity can only vanish under high EM confinement. But this naturally occurs with CCN having high S/V ratios as the heat is deposited in the CCN surface, thereby placing the internal CCN atoms under EM confinement over nanoscale dimensions. S/V stands for surface-to-volume.

Simple QED then conserves the surface heat by creating EM radiation having half-wavelength λ/2 = d standing across the diameter d of the CCN and so Planck energy E = hν is created having frequency, ν = (c/n) / λ = c/2nd, where the velocity of light c is corrected for the slower speed in clustered water molecules by the refractive index n of water. For n = 1.33, CCN emit UVC radiation at a diameter d = λ/2n ≈ 100 nm. Once the CCN surface heat is expended in creating the standing waves, the EM confinement vanishes and the QED induced EM radiation is emitted to the surroundings. See diverse simple QED applications of the Planck law in nanostructures at, 2010 – 2017.

Simple QED that predicts growing CCN emit EM radiation is consistent with the UV irradiance measured [2] from clouds, but is also consistent with UV absorption as the condensation of water was found [3] to depend on the wavelength λ of incident UV radiation from 200 to 320 nm. Stokes shift aside, the CCN emit [2] the UV they absorb [3]. Of note, CCN do not create high dipole moments qegkj in the UV, but in the EUV below 200 nm by CCN < 50 nm.

Of interest to hurricanes, condensation was not found [3] to depend on exposure to air or oxygen, but was later refuted [4] that showed the effect of oxygen to be crucial to water condensation consistent [5] with the historic work of C.T.R. Wilson. The recent CERN experiments [1] under 1 GeV synchrotron radiation did not report on condensation of water vapor upon the removal of oxygen.

In summary, QED induced EUV radiation from CCN is a natural process in hurricanes that significantly enhances the condensation of water without the need of solar UV or cosmic rays. But if significant CCN production is a natural to hurricanes, the question is:

Can the natural EUV enhancement of CCN be stopped?

Simply burning combustibles such as magnesium in the updraft of the hurricane would remove oxygen in the formation of CCN, but the chimney effect of higher air temperatures would increase the updraft. Seeding with EUV absorbing gases that attach to water vapor molecules is conceptually ideal as the EUV is created within the CCN. But removal of oxygen with materials that  absorb oxygen from atmospheric air are encouraging.  See

Given the extent of the updraft in a hurricane shown in the thumbnail, the removal of oxygen from the updraft of hurricanes may not be feasible, but EUV absorptive gases that attach to water vapor offer some hope.

[1] J. Kirkby, et al., "Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles," Nature, 533, 521, 26 May, 2016.
[2] B. Wehner, et al., "Observations of new particle formation in enhanced UV irradiance zones near cumulus clouds,"Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11701–11711, 2015
[3] F. C. Wen, et al., "Photoinduced Nucleation of Water Vapor," Science, 200, 770, 1978.
[4] W. Byers Brown, "Photonucleation of water vapour in the presence of oxygen," Chemical Physics Letters 235, 94-98, 1995.
[5] C.T.R. Wilson, "On the Condensation Nuclei Produced in Gases by the Action of Rontgen Rays, Uranium Rays, Ultra-Violet Light, and Other Agents," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 192,403, 1899.

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