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Expanding Universe or Cosmic Dust?
Cosmic dust in measurements of anomalous microwave emission and Hubble redshift both suggest the Universe is not expanding
By: QED Radiations
Recently, Physics Today  reported AME in BICEP2 measurements at 150 GHz supported the presence of gravitational waves formed in the rapid expansion following the Big Bang, the consequence of which is the CMB is expected to be placed in a B-mode polarization. AME stands for Anomalous Microwave Emission and CMB for Cosmic Microwave Background. However, cosmic dust  in the Milky Way may also produce AME similar to that found in BICEP2 thereby placing in question the Big Bang and the expanding Universe. Later, extrapolation of 353 GHz Planck telescope data  to 160 GHz suggested the AME was caused by dust and not remnants of gravitational waves, thereby placing doubt in the expanding Universe. More work is required to provide final confirmation.
Similarly, an expanding Universe was questioned  because of cosmic dust exaggerating Hubble redshift measurements of distant galaxies by Doppler’s effect. Like AME, redshift by dust in the line of sight to a galaxy suggested Universe expansion may be grossly exaggerated, i.e., the Hubble redshift may show a galaxy is receding near the speed of light relative to the Earth when in fact the dust NPs need not be moving at all. NPs stands for nanoparticles
What this means is cosmic dust is the commonality by which an expanding Universe may be assessed. But if so, how are the AME and Hubble redshift related to cosmic dust?
Theory and Discussion
QED induced EM radiation in cosmic dust NPs is proposed as the mechanism by which both AME and Hubble redshift may be used to question an expanding Universe. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics and EM for electromagnetic. QED radiation is a consequence of QM that denies the atoms in NPs under TIR confinement to have the heat capacity to allow changes in temperature upon absorbing galaxy light. QM stands for quantum mechanics and TIR for total internal reflection. The QM restriction on the heat capacity may be understood from the Einstein- Hopf expression for the atom as a harmonic oscillator. See diverse applications of QED radiation at http://www.nanoqed.org , 2009-2015.
In this PR, the only galaxy light considered is single Lyα photons absorbed in spherical dust NPs of amorphous silicon. Ly stands for Lyman. Since NPs have high surface to volume ratios, the absorbed Lyα photon is induced by QED to be totally confined by TIR to the NP surface. Hence, the TIR wavelength λ of the QED photon is the NP circumference, λ = 2 π a n, where a and n are the NP radius and refractive index. However, the QED response of the NP to the Lyα photon depends on its size, the maximum diameter 2 a < 1 micron. In small NPs with a < 40 nm, the Lyα photon is conserved by spinning the NP, the dipole moments of which producing the AME; whereas, the larger NPs having a > 40 nm redshift the Lyα photon to produce VIS and near IR light. The AME and Hubble redshift wavelength in relation to the dust radius are shown in the thumbnail.
QED redshift only occurs as the NPs for a > 0.040 microns absorb single Lyα photons, i.e., blueshift requiring greater EM energy than that of the Lyα photon cannot occur as the conservation of energy would be violated. The QED induced redshift Z in dust is, Z = ( λ - λ* ) / λ*, where λ and λ* are the wavelengths of the QED redshifted and Lyα photons. For a < 0.5 microns, the thumbnail shows the redshifted wavelength λ = 0.376 microns begins at NP radius a = 0.04 microns in the VIS to 5.7 microns in the IR. Larger NPs > 1 micron are required to produce QED induced UIR bands, but heating  of NPs and PAH to produce IR emissions is precluded by QM. UIR stands for unidentified infrared and PAH for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. See how QED redshift in NPs explains dark matter in http://prlog.org/
Classically, the absorbed Lyα photon is dissipated by an increase in temperature, but is forbidden by QM. Hence, the absorbed Lyα photon can only be conserved in the TIR mode, but blueshift cannot occur. Since the TIR mode is tangential to the surface of the NP, the Lyα photon naturally produces circularly polarized light around the NP to exert a torque with conservation proceeding by NP spinning. QED induced NP spinning is new, although it has been known  for sometime that 1 – 5 micron CuO particles rotate upon being placed in circularly polarized light. But QED does this naturally in NPs without need to circularly polarize Lyα photons.
QED induced AME conserves the Lyα energy hc /λ* with rotational energy ½ J ω2 of the NP giving the spin rate ω = √ (2 h c / J λ*), where h is Planck’s constant, c the speed of light, J the NP rotational moment of inertia, J = 2 m a2 / 5, and m the NP mass. For amorphous silica having density 2650 kg / m3, the thumbnail shows the spin rate ω over NP radii 0.001 < a < 0.04 microns corresponds to AME from 0.1 to 860 GHz.
QED radiation applied to the absorption of Lyα photons in dust NPs < 1 micron provides a common basis for assessing Universe expansion, i.e, NPs with a < 0.04 microns producing the AME while QED redshift occurs for NPs > 0.04 microns.
Hubble redshift (Z Hubble) may be obtained from measured redshift (Z meas) by correcting for dust by measuring the redshift of Lyα and Hα lines,
Z Hubble = Z meas - ( Z Lyα - Z Hα )
where, Z Ly and Z Hα are the line redshifts.
Current AME mechanisms that excite NP rotation by IR emission from increased temperatures upon UV absorption cannot be valid by QM. Similarly, the UIR bands thought formed by increased temperatures of PAH molecules are not valid.
QED induced AME that circularly polarizes Lyα photons upon absorption in a < 0.04 micron NPs requires experimental verification, say by measuring the microwave emission from NPs upon unpolarized UV irradiation.
The AME is caused by dust – not as a relic of gravitational waves in an expanding Universe following the Big Bang. The CMB spectrum therefore can only be caused by thermal blackbody radiation from a static Universe reaching an equilibrium temperature of 2.726 K over an infinitely long time.
 M. Livio & M. Kamionkowski, “Bicep2’s B Modes: Big Bang or dust? “Physics Today, Dec 2014 8-10.
 R. Flauger, J. C. Hill, & D. N. Spergel, “Toward an Understanding of Foreground Emission in the Bicep2 Region,” arxiv.org/pdf/
 R. Adam, et al., “Planck intermediate results. XXX. The angular power spectrum of polarized dust emission at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes,” arxiv.org/abs/
 T. Prevenslik, “Cosmic Dust and Cosmology,” Publications of the Korean Astronomical Society 2015 January
 A. Li & B. T. Draine, “Infrared Emission From Interstellar Dust. II. The Diffuse Interstellar Medium,”AJ, 554, 778-802, 2001.
 M. E. J. Friese, et al., “Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles,” Phys. Rev. A, 54, 1593-1596, 1996.
Page Updated Last on: Jan 15, 2015