Dark Matter negated by scale invariant General Relativity?

High velocities in spiral galaxies corrected for redshift in cosmic dust and follow Newtonian mechanics supersede scale invariant General Relativity that allows high spiral galaxy velocities to exist without a need for Dark Matter
By: QED Radiations
Error of cosmic dust redshift on galaxy velocities may reach the speed of light
Error of cosmic dust redshift on galaxy velocities may reach the speed of light
PITTSBURGH - Dec. 27, 2017 - PRLog -- .

Almost a century ago, Hubble’s redshift measurements of light from distant galaxies marked the beginning of the notion the Universe was expanding thereby supporting Einstein'’s GR theory, GR standing for general relativity. In 1933, Fritz Zwicky claimed there was far more matter - the so-called Dark Matter- in the Universe than what was visible. It was not until the 1970's that Vera Rubin presented the argument Dark Matter might be present to hold spiral galaxies together under the rotation velocities measured. Like Hubble, Rubin inferred galaxy velocities from redshift of galaxy light, but included the emerging interest of astronomy in the redshift of the 21 cm hydrogen line. In 2017, Andrei Maeder made the controversial proposal [1] that GR modified for scale invariance allows spiral galaxies to have the high rotation velocities without the need for dark matter to hold the galaxies together. But not all agreed. See Sabine Hossenfelder’'s theoretical rebuke and reply comments at http://backreaction.blogspot.de/2017/11/astrophysicist-di...

Scale invariant GR requires the large scale Universe to be empty space without mass – an unrealistic physical condition, let alone questionable as a theory by the scientific method because of  being unverifiable .

In the alternative, a verifiable Dark Matter theory in the negative is proposed :

Dark Matter does not exist because cosmic dust that permeates the Universe redshifts galaxy light thereby overstating the recession velocities of galaxies giving the impression the Universe is expanding faster than expected.  Similarly, the rotational velocity of spiral galaxies are overstated suggesting Dark Matter exists to hold the galaxies together.

Unlike scale invariant GR, redshift by cosmic dust is verifiable,e.g., in nanotechnology, nanoparticles depending  on size are commonly known to redshift laser light.  Indeed, CERN was requested to resolve the Dark Matter problem by conducting a comprehensive study of redshift in silica nanoparticles under Lyman - alpha radiation.

The redshift in cosmic dust went unnoticed for almost a century because the light-matter interaction of galaxy light was assumed to follow classical physics allowing the heat capacity of the nanoscopic dust to conserve the galaxy photon by an increase in temperature. But the heat capacity of the atom given by the Planck law of QM is not scale invariant being finite at the macroscale while vanishing at the nanoscale.  QM stands for quantum mechanics. Conservation of the galaxy photon is therefore only possible by a non-thermal light-matter interaction mechanism proposed here to be simple QED. See diverse simple QED applications of the Planck law in nanostructures at http://www.nanoqed.org/, 2010 –- 2018.

Simple QED
Simple QED relies on the high S/V ratios of cosmic dust whereby the  galaxy photon of wavelength λo is absorbed almost entirely in the dust surface placing internal atoms under the high EM confinement necessary in the Planck law for heat capacity to vanish. S/V stands for surface-to-volume. A non-thermal EM standing photon having half-wavelength λ/2 = d is then created as the galaxy photon energy adjusts to the EM confinement bounded by the dust surface. The speed of light c corrected for the refractive index n of the dust gives the energy E of the redshift photon, E = h(c/n)/λ for a wavelength 2nd and redshift Z of the galaxy photon, Z = (2nd - λo) /λo. Once the energy of the galaxy photon absorbed in the dust surface is expended in forming the standing photon, the EM confinement vanishes and the galaxy photon now redshifted is free to travel to the Earth. The thumbnail shows the cosmic dust redshift Z for Lyman and hydrogen - alpha galaxy photons gives V/c ratios → 1 suggesting galaxy velocities approach the speed of light thereby significantly overstating galaxy velocities giving the impression Dark Matter is necessarily present to hold the galaxies together.

Scale invariant GR is a mathematical argument of how high galaxy velocities may exist without dark matter. However,  the absence of mass in free space is not self-evident and cannot be verified.

In contrast, overstated galaxy velocities caused by redshift in cosmic dust is easily verifiable in Earth based experiments with laser light and nanoparticles.

By correcting measured galaxy redshifts for cosmic dust, not only does Dark Matter not exist, but scale invariant GR, including GR are moot as galaxy dynamics follows Newtonian mechanics.

[1] A. Maeder, “An alternative to the ΛCDM model: the case of scale invariance,”  Astrophysical Journal, 834, 194, 2017.

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