Dark Matter is the Redshift of Cosmic Dust

LUX experiments showing WIMPs do not exist implying there is no dark matter are consistent with galaxies moving at Newtonian velocities based on the Doppler effect provided redshift measurements are corrected for cosmic dust
 
 
Dark Matter LUX Experiment WIMP detector
Dark Matter LUX Experiment WIMP detector
 
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PITTSBURGH - Sept. 16, 2016 - PRLog -- .
Introduction

In the 1930s, Dutch astronomer Oort applied Newton's laws to the  rotation of galaxies and based on redshifts found that our Milky Way rotated faster than expected, and therefore concluded the Milky Way had twice the mass that astronomers had estimated. Thereafter, Zwicky studied the redshift of more than a thousand galaxies that were bound together by their mutual gravity. Based on the Doppler effect, the redshifts showed the galaxies were moving so fast the cluster should have, but did not tear itself apart. In 1970, Rubin [1] found that Doppler velocities based on redshift measurements were higher than expected thereby requiring additional mass to hold the galaxies together marking the beginning of the modern search for dark matter.

Over the decades, dark matter hypotheses have not survived. Today, scientists have been forced to conclude that  dark matter is a form of invisible matter that permeates the Universe having a mass about five times more than ordinary matter.

Currently,  dark-matter theory rests on WIMPs -  weakly interactiong massive particles. Created in the Big Bang, WIMPs are thought to still be present today. Indeed, the most powerful WIMP detector is the LUX comprising a vessel containing  a third of a ton of liquid xenon as shown in the thumbnail. LUX stands for Large Underground Xenon collaboration. See "Dark Matter just got murkier," at https://sg.news.yahoo.com/dark-matter-just-got-murkier-140248693.html

Problem
On Aug. 27,2016,LUX researchers reported WIMPs could not be found  suggesting dark matter may not exist.

Resolution
What is thought to be dark matter is proposed to be the consequence of the over exaggerated galaxy velocities computed with the Doppler effect and based on redshifts not corrected for in cosmic dust. If galaxy velocities are corrected for redshift in cosmic dust, dark matter does not exist..

Background
Cosmic dust comprising NPs of silicates having diameters < 500 nm permeate the inter stellar medium. NPs stand for nanoparticles. Emission of atomic lines from a star of wavelength λ may be increased  Δλ' by the recession velocity of the star, but undergo further wavelength increase  Δλ'' upon absorption and re-emission in the cosmic dust surrounding the star. Hence, the total emission wavelength is increased by Δλ = (Δλ' + Δλ'') giving a total redshift Z = Δλ / λ and  cosmic dust redshift Z'' = Δλ'' / λ . Hence,the corrected redshift for cosmic dust is (Z- Z'').

Theory
Unlike classical physics, NPs follow QM that by the Planck law requires the heat capacity of the NP atoms to vanish thereby precluding the conservation of absorbed light from atomic line emissions by an increase in temperature. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Vanishing heat capacity of the atom by QM is not new, but the consequence of Planck's formulation over a century ago. For heat capacity to vanish, however, the NP must be placed under high EM confinement.  In NPs, the EM confinement is their high surface-to-volume ratio that requires absorbed heat to be momentarily confined to their surface – thereby providing the necessary EM confinement of atoms over nanoscale dimensions. Since  the NP temperature cannot increase by QM, conservation proceeds by QED converting the surface heat into EM waves standing between diametrically opposite heated NP surfaces. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics.

But QED here differs from the complex light-matter interaction theory advanced by Feynman and others. Simply stated: Absent NP heat capacity, heat supplied to a NP of diameter d is conserved [2] by creating standing EM waves wit'hin the NP having half-wavelength λ / 2 = n d, where n is the NP refractive index. Once the surface heat is expended in forming the standing waves, the EM confinement vanishes allowing the NPs to emit  EM radiation to the surroundings, Hence, the  cosmic dust redshift    Z'' = Δλ''/ λ = ( 2nd -λ ) / λ . See diverse QED applications at www.nanoqed.org , 2010 - 2016

Conclusions
Since Hubble's discovery of redshift, the notion of an expanding Universe has dominated astronomy, the consequence of which is the futile search for dark matter illustrated by the inability of LUX to find the WIMP. By including the redshift in cosmic dust, Hubble would have allowed astronomy to proceed on the basis of Newtonian mechanics without any need for an expanding Universe and the search for dark matter.

Extensions
If redshift of cosmic dust is excluded in Supernovae observations, Universe expansion is accelerating as the brightness B is found dimmer than its brightness at a distance corresponding to the redshift Z , i.e.,    B < [( B at Z )]. But if the redshift Z is corrected for redshift Z'' of cosmic dust, the brightness B need not be dimmed, i.e., B = [B at (Z – Z'' )]. What this means is cosmic dust created the accelerating Universe.  More study is required.

References
[1] V.C. Rubin and W.K. Ford, "Radial Velocities and Line Strengths of Emissions Lines Across the Nuclear Disk of M31," Astrophysical Journal, 170, 25 (1971)
[2] T. V. Prevenslik, "Cosmology by Cosmic Dust," Korean Astronomical Society, 30, 327, 2015.

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