Redshift Mechanisms in the Static and Expanding Universe

GALEX spectroscopy of galaxies showing cosmic dust produces wavelength dependent luminosities from Lyman alpha emissions is proof positive the Universe is static and not expanding.
By: Thomas Prevenslik
 
 
GALEX Luminosity  vs. Rest Wavelength
GALEX Luminosity vs. Rest Wavelength
 
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Qed Redshift
Lyman Alpha
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static Universe
Expanding Universe

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July 15, 2011 - PRLog -- Background

In 1929, Hubble formulated a law based on the Doppler shift that claimed all wavelengths of light from a galaxy were redshift by the same amount leading to the notion of Universe expansion. Recently, Marmet [1] in a comparison of redshift mechanisms described a number of theories based on photon interactions with electrons that like the Doppler shift also redshift Lyman alpha emissions without a change in wavelength.

Marmet’s Hypothesis

“Absorption by any element (H, He, atoms, molecules, dust, etc...) which has an internal structure implies a wavelength dependence resulting from resonances or absorption bands…wavelength dependent redshift mechanisms would fail to imitate a Doppler-like redshift. For this reason, a cosmological light-matter interaction producing a redshift can only be produced in elements which do not have an internal structure, such as electrons…”

Redshift Structure in a Static and Expanding Universe

The structure of the Lyman alpha emission in cosmic dust observed in the luminosity spectra of galaxies is a measure of whether the Universe is static or expanding. If the Lyman line  correlates as separate and distinct from the structure of the background dust emission, each having different redshifts, the Universe is expanding relative to the dust. However, if the Lyman line correlates with the structure of the background dust, the observed redshift is caused by QED redshift of the Lyman line by the dust itself suggesting a static Universe.

Today, GALEX spectroscopic measurements of galaxy luminosities can easily test Marmet’s hypothesis whether or not the redshift in has structure.  Hubble based his law on spectroscopy but did not correlate cosmic dust with the structure of galaxy light as a measure of whether the Universe was static or expanding. Perhaps, the belief of an expanding Universe was so pervasive at the time and later by others that discrepancies from the Hubble shift were simply ignored; examples of which are described as follows.
 
Hydrogen Lines In Cygnus A, the undisplaced hydrogen line at 21.1 cm corresponds to a frequency of 1420 Mhz. The radio data [2] is limited to a range from the blue end at 1352 MHz and 22.17 cm to the red end at 1329 MHz and 22.57 cm giving redshifts of 0.069 and 0.0508, respectively.  Hence, redshift at radio frequencies does depend on wavelength. Moreover, claims [2] are made of the independence of redshift over a factor of 500000 in wavelength, when in fact the reported radio data is limited to a range from 22.16 to 22.57 cm. What is intended by the statement is that over a range from radio 0.211 m to optical 0.5 micron wavelengths, Doppler’s redshift has been verified, i.e., 0.21/0.5x1^-6 ~ 500,000. But [2] lacks the supporting optical redshift data and does not even provide references to such data.  

Calcium H and K Photographs of the calcium H and K lines at 396.9 and 393.3 nm (Fig. 22-1 of [3]) are shown for redshifts Z from 0.004 to 0.204. But the measurement precision necessary to support this argument is difficult to achieve because the H and K lines are very close together. Again supporting data is not referenced.

Lyman alpha Typical GALEX spectra of galaxy luminosity at Z = 0.926 after mapping back to the rest frame is shown in the above figure. The Lyman emission is observed to not be a distinct line separated from the background as envisioned by Hubble and depicted in text books, but correlates as a part of the structured absorption background of cosmic dust. Hence, the luminosity is the QED redshift of the Lyman line by cosmic dust, suggesting a static Universe. Further, Doppler shift and photon absorption by electrons lacking structure are inconsistent with GALEX spectroscopy. Still further, the deviation of GALEX redshift from the Hubble redshift for the same wavelength (Fig. 17 of [4]) clearly shows optical redshift is not the same for all wavelengths inconsistent with Marmet’s hypothesis.

Discussion
 
Olbers Paradox In a static Universe, redshift by the Doppler effect is meaningless; only absorption has meaning. Over 100 years before Hubble, Olbers without redshift arguments explained that the absorption of starlight by dust would make the dark night sky bright. It was later argued the dust would eventually heat to high temperatures and the space between the stars would still be bright and not dark. By the theory of QED induced radiation, however, redshift occurs without  a temperature increase, and therefore the dust does not heat-up, but rather is redshift [5] to the IR the invisible emission of which is not observed allowing the night sky to remain dark.

Green Valley Not only does submicron cosmic dust redshift the Lyman alpha photons [4] in GALEX spectroscopy, but the UV that permeates the ISM is redshift by QED to produce the VIS colors of galaxies [6] from the blue through the green to the red. Hence, the color of a galaxy is neither blue nor red, but may have a color in between - including the so-called Green Valley. Indeed, QED redshift may be considered to produce the entire EM spectrum from the VIS to the IR upon absorption of UV by cosmic dust.  Contrary to the Marmet hypothesis, the structureless Doppler shift and photon absorption by electrons cannot produce the Green Valley.

Conclusions

1. GALEX spectroscopy unequivocally shows the luminosity of the Lyman emission to depend on the structure of absorbing cosmic dust.  Since the luminosity is a broadband structured spectrum, Marmet’s hypothesis that redshift occurs by the absorption of photons by electrons without structure is inconsistent with GALEX data.

2.  QED redshift of the Lyman line by absorption in a distribution of submicron cosmic dust particles provides the structure consistent with the observed GALEX luminosities in a static Universe. Moreover, QED redshift is consistent with Olbers paradox and the Green Valley.

3. The structure of GALEX luminosity is proof positive the redshift of galaxy light depends on absorption in cosmic dust. QED redshift in cosmic dust is consistent with GALEX spectroscopy suggesting the redshift measured by Hubble had nothing to do with an expanding Universe.

4.  GALEX luminosities should give the correlation of all galaxy emission lines to the dust continuum including a statement on whether or not the galaxy is receding from the cosmic dust.

References

[1] Marmet, L. “Quantitative Comparisons of Redshift Mechanisms,” See http://www.marmet.org/cosmology/redshift/mechanisms.pdf
[2] Lilley, E. F. and McClain, E. F., “The Hydrogen-Line Redshift of Radio Source Cygnus A,” ApJ, 123, 172L, 1955.
[3] Zielik, M. and Gregory, S. A., Introductory Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1st Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1987.
[4] Cowie, L. L., et al., “Low-Redshift Ly alpha Emission-Line Galaxies,” ApJ, 711, 928, 2010.
[5] Prevenslik,T., “Olbers Paradox,” See http://www.prlog.org/10732166-olbers-paradox-is-explained...
[6] Prevenslik, T., “Green Valley,” See http://www.prlog.org/11537993-theories-of-galaxy-evolutio...

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About QED Induced EM Radiation: Classically, absorbed EM energy is conserved by an increase in temperature. But at the nanoscale, temperature increases are forbidden by quantum mechanics. QED radiation explains how absorbed EM energy is conserved at the nanoscale by the emission of nonthermal EM radiation.
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