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Understand about Mosquito Life Cycle and Type of Mosquito Disease
Today mosquito is almost affecting worldwide with deadly mosquito diseases such as Malaria, Dengue Fever, Yellow Fever, Japanese Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis and newly created disease Chikungunya.
The mosquito goes through four separate and distinct stages of its life cycle and they are as follows: Egg, Larva, pupa, and adult. Each of these stages can be easily recognized by their special appearance. There are four common groups of mosquitoes living in the Bay Area. They are Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, and Culiseta.
Egg : Eggs are laid one at a time and they float on the surface of the water. In the case of Culex and Culiseta species, the eggs are stuck together in rafts of a hundred or more eggs. Anopheles and Aedes species do not make egg rafts but lay their eggs separately. Culex, Culiseta, and Anopheles lay their eggs on water while Aedes lay their eggs on damp soil that will be flooded by water. Most eggs hatch into larvae within 48 hours.
Larva : The larva (larvae - plural) live in the water and come to the surface to breathe. They shed their skin four times growing larger after each molting. Most larvae have siphon tubes for breathing and hang from the water surface. Anopheles larvae do not have a siphon and they lay parallel to the water surface. The larva feed on micro-organisms and organic matter in the water. On the fourth molt the larva changes into a pupa.
Pupa : The pupal stage is a resting, non-feeding stage. This is the time the mosquito turns into an adult. It takes about two days before the adult is fully developed. When development is complete, the pupal skin splits and the mosquito emerges as an adult.
Adult : The newly emerged adult rests on the surface of the water for a short time to allow itself to dry and all its parts to harden. Also, the wings have to spread out and dry properly before it can fly.
The egg, larvae and pupae stages depend on temperature and species characteristics as to how long it takes for development. For instance, Culex tarsalis might go through its life cycle in 14 days at 70 F and take only 10 days at 80 F. Also, some species have naturally adapted to go through their entire life cycle in as little as four days or as long as one month.
Type of Mosquito Disease
Mosquito- born disease is a disease transmitted by mosquito to human. Disease can be from animal or human. Every year, mosquito kills more than 1 million people worldwide and everyday there is people died of mosquito’s disease. Research stated that only few species of mosquitoes are able to transmit disease such as ‘Anopheles’
- Caused by parasite carried from person to person by Anopheles mosquito.
- Anopheles mosquito is active during the night.
- Symptoms of Malaria are fever, headache, malaise, chills, muscle ache, joint pain, nausea and vomiting. Sweating also usually present. These symptoms can be appeared from 10- 15 days and it may continue up to a month or longer.
- There are 500 million cases with more than 1 million deaths reported every year by World Health Organization (WHO), most of the deaths are children and pregnant women.
- Country affected by Malaria is Africa, Asia, Latin America, Middle East and Europe whereby Africa is the most reported in Malaria disease.
- Caused by one of the four Dengue viruses and transmitted from infected person to another.
- Transmits by Aedes mosquito.
- Symptoms of Dengue are sudden high fever, severe headache, eyes pain, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting and no appetite. Symptoms usually appear from 3- 14 days after infection bite. Dengue infection may progress up to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever where the blood vessel starts to leak and causing bleeding from nose, mouth and gums. Without prompt treatment, the blood vessel can collapse, shock and death.
- Two fifth of the population are at risk and this disease is a leading cause of serious illness and death to children in some Asia countries.
- There are 50 million cases with 12,500 deaths reported every year by World Health Organization (WHO)
- Dengue Fever is common in most tropical and sub tropical countries such as Caribbean, Mexico, Central and South America, Asia and Africa.
- Is a tropical disease caused by Yellow Fever virus.
- Transmits by Aedes mosquito.
- 2 types of Yellow Fever: Jungle Yellow Fever and Urban Yellow Fever.
- Jungle Yellow Fever is a disease caused by monkey. People get Jungle Yellow Fever when they get bitten by mosquitoes that infected by monkeys. Jungle Yellow Fever usually occurs for those working in the tropical rain forests. For Urban Yellow Fever is a disease from infected person to another.
- Aedes mosquito usually breeding in discarded tyres, oil drums, flower pots, or water containers.
- Symptoms of Yellow Fever are fever, muscle pain, loss appetite, nausea, headache, shiver and vomiting. Symptoms appear from 3- 6 days after infection bite. Usually patient will recover after few days but in some cases, fever reappear and causing jaundice and internal bleeding. 50% of the cases, patient died within 10- 14 days.
- There are 200,000 cases with 30,000 deaths reported every year by World Health Organization (WHO)
- Yellow Fever is found in Africa and South America.
- Japanese Encephalitis is a viral disease transmitted by rice field breeding mosquitoes. This kind of mosquitoes belongs to ‘genius culex’ group. Rice field mosquitoes get infected after feeding on pigs and wild birds that infected with Japanese Encephalitis virus.
- Japanese Encephalitis causes serious inflammation of brain and may lead to permanent brain damage and high mortality rate.
- Symptoms of Japanese Encephalitis are fever, headache, neck stiffness, coma, stupor and high risk of causing permanent brain damage.
- There are 50,000 cases with 15,000 deaths reported every year by World Health Organization (WHO)
- Countries affected by Japanese Encephalitis disease are China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar, India, Nepal and Malaysia.
West Nile Encephalitis
- West Nile Encephalitis is causing by West Nile virus where acquire from wild birds such as crows, blue jays, gray jays, magpies and ravens.
- West Nile Encephalitis usually transmits by ‘Culex Pipiens’ or ‘Culex Restuans’ mosquito and it occurs during warm whether when mosquito populations are active.
- Symptoms for West Nile Encephalitis are headache, fever, neck stiffness, body ache, muscle pain, skin rash and high risk of death. Symptoms usually appear from 2- 14 days after infection bite.
- West Nile Encephalitis is widely reported in Africa, Australia, Europe, West Asia and Middle East.
Please note that, currently all diseases above do not have specific treatment or vaccine to cure.
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