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Relational Database management: How Effective?
What is stored procedures? A stored procedure is a subroutine available to applications accessing a relational database system. Stored procedures (sometimes called a proc, sproc, StoPro, or SP) are actually stored in the database data dictionary
1. What is stored procedures?
A stored procedure is a subroutine available to applications accessing a relational database system. Stored procedures (sometimes called a proc, sproc, StoPro, or SP) are actually stored in the database data dictionary.
Typical uses for stored procedures include data validation (integrated into the database) or access control mechanisms. Furthermore, stored procedures are used to consolidate and centralize logic that was originally implemented in applications. Large or complex processing that might require the execution of several SQL statements is moved into stored procedures, and all applications call the procedures only.
Stored procedures are similar to user-defined functions (UDFs). The major difference is that UDFs can be used like any other expression within SQL statements, whereas stored procedures must be invoked using the CALL statement
Stored procedures can return result sets, i.e. the results of a SELECT statement. Such result sets can be processed using cursors by other stored procedures by associating a result set locator, or by applications. Stored procedures may also contain declared variables for processing data and cursors that allow it to loop through multiple rows in a table. The standard Structured Query Language provides IF, WHILE, LOOP, REPEAT, CASE statements, and more. Stored procedures can receive variables, return results or modify variables and return them, depending on how and where the variable is declared.
2. What is cursors?
In database packages, a 'cursor' comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set.
Database programmers use cursors for processing individual rows returned by the database system for a query. Cursors address an issue many programming languages suffer from: impedance mismatch. Most procedural programming languages do not offer any mechanism for manipulating whole result-sets at once. In this scenario, the application must process rows in a result-set sequentially. Thus one can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set.
Several SQL statements do not require the use of cursors. That includes the INSERT statement, for example, as well as most forms of the DELETE and UPDATE statements. Even a SELECT statement may not involve a cursor if it is used in the variation of SELECT INTO. A SELECT INTO retrieves at most a single row directly into the application.
3. What is embedded SQL?
Embedded SQL is a method of combining the computing power of a programming language and the database manipulation capabilities of SQL. Embedded SQL statements are SQL statements written inline with the program source code of the host language. The embedded SQL statements are parsed by an embedded SQL preprocessor and replaced by host-language calls to a code library. The output from the preprocessor is then compiled by the host compiler. This allows programmers to embed SQL statements in programs written in any number of languages such as: C/C++, COBOL and Fortran.
The ANSI SQL standards committee defined the embedded SQL standard in two steps: a formalism called Module Language was defined, then the embedded SQL standard was derived from Module Language.
4. What is triggers?
A database trigger is procedural code that is automatically executed in response to certain events on a particular table in a database. Triggers can restrict access to specific data, perform logging, or audit data modifications.
There are two classes of triggers, they are either "row triggers" or "statement triggers". Row triggers define an action for every row of a table, while statement triggers occur only once per INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement. Triggers cannot be used to audit data retrieval via SELECT statements.
Each class can be of several types. There are "BEFORE triggers" and "AFTER triggers" which identifies the time of execution of the trigger. There is also an "INSTEAD OF trigger" which is code that gets executed instead of the triggering statement.
There are typically three triggering events that cause triggers to 'fire':
INSERT event (as a new record is being inserted into the database).
UPDATE event (as a record is being changed).
DELETE event (as a record is being deleted).
The trigger is used to automate DML condition process.
The major features of database triggers, and their effects, are:
do not accept parameters or arguments (but may store affected-data in temporary tables)
cannot perform commit or rollback operations because they are part of the triggering SQL statement (only through autonomous transactions)
can cause mutating table errors, if they are poorly written.
Page Updated Last on: Feb 08, 2011