The formation of the metal components involves two different processes - The Bulk Deformation Process and the Sheet Metal Working Process. In the Bulk Deformation Process, the processed metal has a very low surface area compared to the volume ratio. However, in the Sheet Metal Working Process, the metal that is being processed will have a relatively high surface area compared to the volume ratio.
The Bulk Deformation Process is further classified into four major groups viz: Rolling, Forging, Extrusion and Drawing.
Rolling: In this process, the work is deformed by the use of rolls. This metal component forming process includes shape rolling, flat rolling, gear rolling, thread rolling and roll piercing or rotary tube piercing in order to produce seamless tube and pipe.
Forging: This process involves the usage of dies which compresses and shapes a work piece. This die may either be flat or may characterize any geometrical shape.
Extrusion: This process is done by pushing the metal through a die cavity, and producing work of uneven length and uniform cross section.
Drawing: This metal component forming process is almost similar to Extrusion, but here the length of the metal component is made to flow through the die cavity and the formation is carried out upon its cross section. The only major difference between the Drawing process and the Extrusion process is the use of force to the work piece. In the Drawing process the work is pulled through the die cavity whereas in the Extrusion process, the work is pushed through the die opening.
The Sheet Metal Working involves three processes – Shearing, Bending and Deep Drawing.
Shearing: The process involves punching of holes and cutting the work piece. The process is very crucial in the formation of metal components and does not involve shaping by means of plastic deformation.
Bending: Here the deformation of work is done by bending the work piece at a certain axis.
Deep Drawing: This formation process involves a flat sheet or plate that is forced through a die opening to obtain the desired shape.
In today’s business market, the tremendous competition has encouraged organizations to create new designs for their products and the metal pressing technique perfectly helps them to achieve this.
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