The study was done on mices and was meant to test the weight cycling, long-term hypercaloric or low-fat diet effects on body weight. All of them received the same calorie intake over a period of time. The results shown that weight cycling mices gained much more body weight and fat compare mices supposed to long-term hypocaloric diet. Aside of this, in weight-cycling mices were noticed a downregulation of several clock genes in adipose tissue which are considered to be a cause of metabolic adaptation to weight cycling.
Not proved yet on human, this test confirm a theory which most of people tend to neglect: losing weight have to be a long term goal and not a few weeks task. Continue changes in your food intake regarding volume and consistency is going to cause more fat gains and get your metabolism used to it. Such a way, you simply regain weight as quickly as you burn it off, but in a higher degree.
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Weight cycling can lead to obesity. By repeatedly going on and off diet you just put your health at risk by gaining even more fat and in worst cases ending up with a form of diabet.