Mild lung hypertension is also associated with OSA. Heart blockages are associated with severe OSA but not mild OSA. Night cardiac arrhythmias are known with OSA and therefore all patients with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias should be evaluated for possible OSA.
Treatment of OSA may reduce systemic blood pressure, lung pressure, cardiovascular events and eliminate nocturnal ventricular bradycardia and asystole in many patients with OSA.
Explaining how sleep apnea occurs, Dr Aggarwal said that the throat is surrounded by muscles that control the airway for speaking, swallowing, and breathing. During sleep, these muscles are less active, and this causes the throat to narrow. In most people, this narrowing does not affect breathing. In others, it can cause snoring, sometimes with reduced or completely blocked airflow.
A completely blocked airway without airflow is called an obstructive apnea. Partial obstruction with diminished airflow is called a hypopnea. A person may have apnea and hypopnea during sleep.
Insufficient breathing due to apnea or hypopnea causes oxygen levels to fall and carbon dioxide to rise. Because the airway is blocked, breathing faster or harder does not help to improve oxygen levels until the airway is reopened. Typically, this requires the person to awaken to activate the upper airway muscles. Once the airway is opened, the person then takes several deep breaths to catch up on breathing. As the person awakens, he or she may move briefly, snort or snore, and take a deep breath. Less frequently, a person may awaken completely with a sensation of gasping, smothering, or choking.
Many people with sleep apnea are unaware of their abnormal breathing in sleep, and all patients underestimate how often their sleep is interrupted. Awakening from sleep causes sleep to be unrefreshing and causes fatigue and daytime sleepiness.
Certain factors increase the risk of sleep apnea.
Increasing age: Sleep apnea occurs at all ages, but it is more common in middle and older age adults.
Male sex: Sleep apnea is two times more common in men, especially in middle age.
Obesity: The more obese a person is, the more likely they are to have sleep apnea.
Sedation from medication or alcohol interferes with the ability to awaken from sleep and can lengthen periods of apnea (no breathing), with potentially dangerous consequences.
Abnormality of the airway
About HCFI : The only National Not for profit NGO, on whose mega community health education events, Govt. of India has released two National Commemorative stamps and one cancellation stamp, and who has conducted one to one training on" Hands only CPR" of 84500 people since 1st November 2012.
The CPR 10 Mantra is – "Within 10 minutes of death, earlier the better; at least for the next 10 minutes, longer the better; compress the centre of the chest of the dead person continuously and effectively with a speed of 10×10 i.e. 100 per minute."
Dr K KAggarwal
Dr K KAggarwal