Species and varieties may have cosmopolitan distribution or endemic distribution. For the cosmopolitan species and varieties it can be easily said that they originated at some point and then spread to the entire geographical area occupied by them. But generally cosmopolitan species are naturally divided into a large number of geography specific varieties on the basis of large number of definitive and deterministic variations. Variations between two different varieties of the same species can’t always be accounted for due to natural selection and struggle for survival. For example color of human skin has no bearing on human survival in different geographies, yet there are profound geography related variations. It is possible to differentiate 9 subspecies of Giraffe endemic to different areas in geographically continuous African Continent. All the variations among different varieties can’t be explained on the basis of Darwinism. http://www.wickedgiraffe.com/
This is true of almost all the cosmopolitan species having large number of varieties. Geographical Indication varieties of large number of species of flora and fauna are well known. For example Darjeeling tea has its famous, naturally occurring quality and flavor only if grown in Darjeeling. Neither Darjeeling tea grown elsewhere has the same quality and flavor nor does any other tea variety grown in Darjeeling have the renowned quality and flavor. How can one relate quality and flavor of Darjeeling tea to Darwinian struggle for survival? Therefore it is self evident that all the traits of any species or variety of flora and fauna can’t to be attributed to Darwinian struggle for survival. This includes definitive and deterministic characters which are immune from statistical variations. Hence population genetics or genetic drift can’t explain differentiating or distinctive variations among species and varieties.
Endemism is the ecological state of being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. Endemic types or species are especially likely to develop on biologically isolated areas such as islands because of their geographical isolation. But endemic species with restricted geographical distribution are known to occur without any geographical isolation from the main land.
According to the World Wildlife Fund, the following ecoregions have the highest percentage of endemic plants:
· Fynbos (South Africa)
· Hawaiian tropical dry forests (United States)
· Hawaiian tropical rainforests (United States)
· Kwongan heathlands (Australia)
· Madagascar dry deciduous forests (Madagascar)
· Madagascar lowland forests (Madagascar)
· New Caledonia dry forests (New Caledonia)
· New Caledonia rain forests (New Caledonia)
· Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests (Mexico)
· Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests (Mexico)
· Luzon montane rainforests (Philippines)
· Luzon rainforests (Philippines)
· Luzon tropical pine forests (Philippines)
· Mindanao montane rain forests (Philippines)
· Mindanao-Eastern Visayas rain forests (Philippines)
· Palawan rain forests (Philippines)
Occurrence of various endemic species in sharply defined geographical areas with or without isolation is against Darwinian gradualism over an immense period of time. In the case of unique species endemic to various islands Darwinism raises the question of source of ancestral species. No amount of dispersal, migration and isolation can explain evolution of species endemic to various islands in the world.
Hence Darwinism is unable to explain place related discontinuous, discrete, deterministic variations in flora and fauna across the globe. Organisms generally do not vary across some geographically determined gradients to which notions of continuity over immense period of time and gradualism can be applied.
Author: Dr Mahesh C. Jain is a practicing medical doctor and has written the book “Encounter of Science with Philosophy – A synthetic view”. The book begins with first chapter devoted to scientifically valid concept of God and then explains cosmic phenomena right from origin of nature and universe up to origin of life and evolution of man. The book includes several chapters devoted to auxiliary concepts and social sciences as corollaries to the concept of God. This is the only book which deals with origin of nature and universe from null or Zero or nothing. Chapter 30 of the book is about Evolution of Life wherein author has worked out a new theory about evolution of life.