Western philosophers and scientists have one thing in common. Both are unanimous in their belief that nature and universe advanced through catastrophes, cataclysms, chaos, upheavals, accidents, random events etc. only because they have no scientific explanation to offer. Even in human society ‘Revolution’
Theory of Catastrophism was advanced by Cuvier in 1812 to reconcile geology with Moses account of creation in Genesis in Bible. Cuvier was a great comparative anatomist of 19th century. He appreciated complexities of the process of creation in general and origin of species in particular. To explain origins and creations, he preferred to attribute it to direct intervention of creative powers i.e. Supernatural God.
Darwin likewise attributed biological evolution to accumulation of random variations without ever bothering to explain as to how random variations can account for large number of coordinated variations which accompany origin of species. He out-rightly ignored the collateral issues of identity and integrity of species and varieties that permit only a limited change in any species and variety as a result of variations.
In twentieth century, Physicists attributed origin of universe to Big Bang without ever explaining nature and source of dense matter, only because straight line extrapolation of one particular line of thinking leads to Big Bang. All the irreconcilable differences with collateral evidence and issues were out rightly ignored. No proponent of Big Bang theory has ever bothered to explain as to how the assumed chaos that presumably preceded Big Bang could ever spontaneously (without external intervention)
Theories abound where nature’s creativity is sought to be explained on the basis of Entropy that accompanies each and every irreversible physical and chemical change. In all these theories Entropy was assumed to be directing and driving creations and origins. The question of ‘How’ was out-rightly ignored. These theories never explained as to how Entropy which is nothing but dissipation or decay of thermal energy into universal heat sink, could ever account for creation even if in general. These theorists built elaborate theories but never bothered themselves to explain specificity of creations and origins.
Pre-biotic soup, which must have preceded origin of life and should have led to origin of life in a kaleidoscopic manner through a series of random events, has till date found no evidence in support of its existence. Even theories which postulate extra-terrestrial origin of life and its subsequent plantation on earth, besides being irrational are struggling for evidence in their support.
It is pertinent to ask oneself many questions while dealing with the issue of natural origins and creations.
How can chaos ever lead to order without external intervention?
What about self-organizing, self-sustaining character and nature of universe.
What about constancy of natural laws in a universe advancing through catastrophes, cataclysms, chaos, upheavals, accidents, random events etc.?
Why shouldn’t natural laws also keep changing in such a universe?
What about scientific predictions of the past and future in a universe devoid of constant natural laws.
Therefore all acts of natural origin and creation have to be explained with due regard to constancy of natural laws, collateral facts and issues.
Nature can’t advance through cataclysms and catastrophes.
Evolution has to be involution rather than revolution i.e. a change from within rather than a change from without.
Generally speaking all planets and stars and other celestial bodies revolve in stable elliptical orbits. Circular orbits could have been easily explained on the basis of balancing of gravitational force and centrifugal force. But this is not true for elliptical orbits. Stable elliptical orbits involve precise inter-conversion of kinetic energy of the planet into potential energy. Control and regulation of this phenomenon is beyond comprehension on the basis of known laws of Physics.
Therefore, to explain formation of any planet, star and any other celestial body on the basis of some catastrophic, cataclysmic event is clearly farfetched. Concomitant to the said catastrophic, cataclysmic event shall be the issue of their placement in stable elliptical orbits and sustaining them in those elliptical orbits as is the case with artificial satellites. How shall that be managed?
Planets, stars and other celestial bodies can form only in strict compliance with applicable natural laws and at the same time satisfying all the conditions mandatory to their existence. Therefore their formation as a result of some cataclysm or catastrophe is highly improbable.
Hence in my view planets, stars and other celestial bodies form as a result of condensation of solid dust and gas clouds at specific loci in space. At its specific locus, a celestial body is naturally self-sustaining but how is a matter of further investigation. What natural laws and other factors determine such spatial loci capable of serving as home to celestial bodies is again a matter of further investigation. But one such law already known is Titus - Bode Law.
Under these conditions every celestial body is a discrete entity and may have unique laws of behavior, natural history and chemical composition. Chemical composition of one celestial body may not necessarily be relatable to chemical composition of another. The process of their formation has to be essentially non-catastrophic and non-cataclysmic. However some time in future it may be possible to classify celestial bodies into various types based on similarities of their chemical composition.
Professor Ian Campbell & Hugh O Neil of Australian National University on 29.03.2012 reported to Eagle.com that earth does not have the same chemical composition as Sun implying that earth did not originate from sun.
Junjun Zhang and Colleagues at Origins Lab at University of Chicago reported on 27.03.2012 that chemical composition of moon can’t be explained on the basis of Giant Impact Theory. Visit: http://www.dailygalaxy.com/
Author: Dr Mahesh C. Jain is a practicing medical doctor has written the book “Encounter of Science with Philosophy – A synthetic view”. The book begins with first chapter devoted to scientifically valid concept of God and then explains cosmic phenomena right from origin of nature and universe up to origin of life and evolution of man. The book includes several chapters devoted to auxiliary concepts and social sciences as corollaries to the concept of God. This is the only book which deals with origin of nature and universe from null or Zero or nothing. This article is inspired by author’s understanding of nature.