Lipids contain more energy per gram than other biological molecules, and some function as long-term energy storage molecules in organisms. Others form a membrane that separates a cell from its environment and has inner compartments as well. Steroids are a large class of lipids that includes, among other molecules, the sex hormones. Lipids are diverse in structure and function, but they have a common characteristic:
Fats and Oils
The most familiar lipids are those found in fats and oils. Fats, which are usually of animal origin (e.g., lard and butter), are solid at room temperature. Oils, which are usually of plant origin (e.g., corn oil and soybean oil), are liquid at room temperature. Fat has several functions in the body:
It is used for long-term energy storage, it insulates against heat loss, and it forms a protective cushion around major organs. Fats and oils form when one glycerol molecule reacts with three fatty acid molecules. A fat is sometimes called a triglyceride, because of its three-part structure, or a neutral fat, because the molecule is nonpolar and carries no charge.
Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids
A fatty acid is a carbon–hydrogen chain that ends with the acidic group —COOH. Most of the fatty acids in cells contain 16 or 18 carbon atoms per molecule, although smaller ones with fewer carbons are also known. Fatty acids are either saturated or unsaturated. Saturated fatty acids have only single covalent bonds because the carbon chain is saturated, so to speak, with all the hydrogen it can hold. Saturated fatty acids account for the solid nature at room temperature of fats such as lard and butter. Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds between carbon atoms wherever fewer than two hydrogens are bonded to a carbon atom. Unsaturated fatty acids account for the liquid nature of vegetable oils at room temperature. Hydrogenation of vegetable oils can convert them to margarine and products such as Crisco.
Proteins perform a myriad of functions, including the following:
• Proteins such as collagen and keratin (which makes up hair and nails) are fibrous structural proteins that lend support to ligaments, tendons, and skin.
• Many hormones, which are messengers that influence cellular metabolism, are proteins.
• The proteins action and myosin account for the movement of cells and the ability of our muscles to contract.
• Some proteins transport molecules in the blood; for example, hemoglobin is a complex protein in our blood that transports oxygen.
• Antibodies in blood and other body fluids are proteins that combine with pathogens or their toxins.
• Enzymes are globular proteins that speed chemical reactions.
Structure of Proteins
Proteins are macromolecules composed of amino acid subunits. An amino acid has a central carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and three groups. The name of the molecule is appropriate because one of these groups is an amino group and another is an acidic group. The third group is called an R group because it is the Remainder of the molecule. Amino acids differ from one another by their R group; the R group varies from having a single carbon to being a complicated ring structure. When two amino acids join, a dipeptide results; a polypeptide is a chain of amino acids .
Twenty different amino acids are common to polypeptides, which differ by the sequence of their amino acids.
The bond between amino acids is called a peptide bond. The atoms of a peptide bond share electrons unevenly; this makes hydrogen bonding possible between members of a polypeptide. Due to hydrogen bonding, the polypeptide often twists to form a coil. Finally, the coil bends and twists into a particular shape because of bonding between R groups. Hydrogen, ionic, and covalent bonding all occur in polypeptides. Also, any hydrophobic portions of a polypeptide tend to be inside, while the hydrophilic portions are outside where they can make contact with water.
Anti-Obese formula – Skinny Secret
Weight management strategy by metabolic regulation
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and increased health problems.
Enhanced lifestyle due to the technology development has attributed “machine assisted life” that reduces calorie burning through muscular efficiency. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive dietary calories and lack of physical activity. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly vascular endothelial disorders leading to cardio vascular accident, diabetes mellitus, fatty liver, hyperlipidemias, arterial hypertension, lower limb joint diseases (osteoarthritis)
On average an obese person has greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass. When compared to daily energy turnover, the amount of energy retained during growth and during the development of obesity is rather small, amounting to a difference of only a few percent between intake and expenditure. Because a positive energy balance can, in principle, be attributed to excessive intake or to reduced expenditure, there has been considerable interest in the possible significance of even small differences in metabolic efficiency for the development or the prevention of obesity.
Mechanism of action
This God given eco-friendly and system friendly natural ingredients in SKINNY SECRET herbal supplement is safer and effective for controlling obesity through metabolic regulation. The mechanism of action includes appetite suppression, visceral fat mobilization and burning for energy, control of further fat deposits, controlled calorie absorption from gut especially carbohydrates. This combination of above action is what we consider the answer to obesity.
Alpha-glycosidase and Alpha-amylase enzymes found on the epithelium of small intestines as membrane bound. They catalyze the cleavage of glucose from disaccharides. These two enzymes are partially blocked by two herbal alkaloids. Hence a good amount of carbohydrates are not absorbed, this contributes to combat obesity by reduced calorie absorption.
Visceral Lipase enzyme is targeted and hence fat from viscera is mobilized for burning to release energy. Citric acid cycle enzymes are affected negatively for gluco-neogenesis. Further fat formation from Acetyl coenzyme A is checked. In the same time energy is sufficient in the body as the fat is burning continually. Natural anti-oxidants, minerals and micro nutrients are supplemented for stomach and liver protection. .
An herb in the supplement contains Pregnane Glycosides which are believed to block the activity of Citrate Lyase. By blocking this enzyme further formation of fat in the body is reduced. Again the herb blocks another enzyme called Malonyl Coenzyme A. By blocking this enzyme, fat formation is further blocked and the body is forced to burn its fat reserves. This accelerates the rate of fat loss by the body.
The Pregnane Glycosides in the herb also inhibit the appetite center of the hypothalamus.
Such a combination of natural ingredients could bring wonderful therapeutic results in reducing both body weight and size. Transabdominal and mid arm circumference can be measured to monitored this effect within 15 days usage of the supplement.
Author - Roy Chavarcode is a member of Chavarcode Ayurveda family. The Chavarcode family is from India and is highly reputed for their knowledge in the great tradition in Ayurveda, India’s ancient and holistic method of treatment.(http://www.gurusgarden.com)
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The Chavarcode family is from southern India and is highly reputed for their knowledge in the great tradition in Ayurveda, India's ancient and holistic method of treatment. The family has given birth to generations of traditional Ayurvedic physicians as well as doctors of western medicine, who have made valuable contribution in health care. The family has through generations preserved ancient scriptures on unique Ayurvedic treatment handed to them by their predecessors. Physicians here are constantly engaged in research and studies to bring out wonderful formulas to reverse many incurable diseases. The secret medicines prepared by physicians here have been highly effective in treating patients who have already been disillusioned by the modern methods of treatment.