The local trains collided at the station in Buizingen, about 9 miles southwest of Brussels at around 8:30 a.m. local time.
Dirk Pieters, the mayor of Buizingen, said "the most recent information we have is that 20 people died.
He said he had received the reports from emergency officials on the scene.
The Associated Press reported that the collision occurred in snowy conditions.
Television reports showed that the force of the collision pushed the first car of each train up off the tracks. The cars ended up resting against each other.
Kristien Berckmans, a Belgian railways spokeswoman, said "there was considerable damage and several people were injured."
Belgian broadcaster VRT reported some victims were hospitalized and others were treated at a nearby sports complex.
There was no immediate word on the cause of the crash.
Train services, including the high-speed line between Brussels and Paris, were suspended for the day, Reuters reported.
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